If you have a question about DMD or if you want to get in contact with Prof. dr. Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, please leave a comment below.

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  • Abhilash V Rao

    Dear Dr. Annemieke,

    Hope you & your family is safe!!

    My Son is 5 years old & is detected with Hemizygous deletion of exons 45 – 50 & is mentioned as Out-Of-Frame deletion in the report.
    1)How severe it is.
    2) Do we have any treatment for it, Does Exon skipping can reduce the issue or do we have any medication for this.
    3) How can the progress of this be reduced.

    We are very anxious & worries as a parents, looking for your response.

    Best Regards,

    6 May, 2021 at 3:08 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Abhilash,

      I am very sorry to hear about your son having a deletion. This deletion disrupts the genetic code, so it would be expected to lead to Duchenne (the severe form of the disease).
      Exon 51 skipping would restore the genetic code and allow production of a partially functional protein, like those found in Becker patients. An exon 51 skipping drug has been approved in the USA (eteplirsen developed by Sarepta). Note that this drug has been approved based only on restoring dystrophin in patients and that it restored very low levels of dystrophin (<1%). Whether this is sufficient to slow down the disease progression is something that is currently being evaluated in additional clinical trials.

      The progress of the disease can be reduced by providing multidisciplinary care - this can slow down the disease a lot. More information about this can be found here: https://treat-nmd.org/care-overview/the-diagnosis-management-of-dmd/guide-for-families/
      Note that this would be in addition to potential treatment with eteplirsen.

      Best regards

      6 May, 2021 at 4:03 pm Reply

  • Hawkar

    Thanks very much fir helping me
    But i just have one other question
    Can i use (Deflazacort) and (Prednisone) is that do any improvements to my muscles strength ?

    Its my second comment for knowing

    Thanks again

    30 April, 2021 at 2:10 am Reply

  • Hawkar

    I have exon skipping 3-4 – deletion
    Iam 29 years old
    What can we do? what type of treatment or drugs available to using?

    29 April, 2021 at 8:00 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      A deletion of exon 3-4 is in-frame and therefore one would expect this to result in Becker muscular dystrophy. There is currently no cure for Becker. Recently treatment guidelines were developed in Italy and these are currently being translated. You would have to inquire with the Italian Parent Project about these (http://parentproject.it/). There are also several clinical trials ongoing in Becker patients, e.g. givinostat (Italfarmaco) and a compound to improve mitochondria (the energy producers of the cells) by Empirio. There were presentations about these trials at the Italian Parent Project meeting in February – the meeting was virtual and the presentations should still be viewable ( http://conferenza.parentproject.it/).

      I am sorry I cannot be of more help

      Best regards

      29 April, 2021 at 9:09 am Reply

  • Radhu

    Hello Maam

    My Son, 4 year old has been diagnosed with Hemizygous deletion of Exon 45 Out of frame, How severe is that, what should I do right now ? Will Amondys 45 (casirmersen) be an option?

    Thanku in Advance.

    14 April, 2021 at 2:45 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      I am sorry about your son having a deletion in the dystrophn gene. A deletion of exon 45 will disrupt the genetic code of the dystrophin gene. Therefore this is expected to lead to Duchenne. Amondys45 will not be therapeutic – this is a drug that induces exon 45 skipping to restore the genetic code. In your son’s case, this exon is not present (deleted), so it cannot be skipped. Restoring the genetic code would require exon 44 skipping. Compounds for exon 44 skipping are in preclinical development but not yet tested in clinical trials.

      Amongst all this bad news, also some good news: patients who need exon 44 skipping on average has a slower disease progression than ‘other Duchenne patients’, because of spontaneous exon 44 skipping at very low levels.

      What you should do right now is make sure your son receives good care at an expert Duchenne center. You can find more information on care here: http://www.dmd-guide.org/

      Please do not hesitate to ask if you have more questions.

      Warm regards

      15 April, 2021 at 9:37 am Reply

  • Peter


    My son, 10 years old, has been diagnosed with exon 2 duplication. How severe is that? What are the possible prognosis for his disease? What can be done to slow down the illnes? Any chances of an effective treatment? He is an active boy but signs of the illness are already starting to appear. He’s able to walk for a long time. He’s playful but has studying problems. He’s not able to concentrate for long periods and he’s been having problems such as not being able to memorize the multiplication table or learning his lessons. He has occasional anger issues for no apparent reasons. Besides that he’s bright minded and has lots of other interests where he’s learning quite well. I’ve been searching the internet for all possible information but would like to hear your opinion and advice. We live in Bulgaria and healthcare is not the best but we’re willing to do whatever it takes so that our boy has a normal life. Thank you in advance!
    Regards, Peter

    1 April, 2021 at 8:45 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Peter,
      I am sorry to hear your son has a duplication of exon 2. Every patient with mutations in the dystrophin gene is unique and there is variation even between patients with the same mutations so it is difficult to give predictions or prognosis.
      What you can do is make sure your son receives optimal care. There are care guidelines for Duchenne muscular dystrophy – you can find them here: https://treat-nmd.org/care-overview/the-diagnosis-management-of-dmd/guide-for-families/guide-for-families-in-different-languages/ This is a version that is accessible also to lay people and translations in many languages are available now.
      There are currently a few treatments approved for DMD in Europe and the USA and Japan. However, they are all mutation specific and would not apply to an exon 2 duplication unfortunately. In the USA a clinical trial is ongoing specifically for exon 2 duplications – this one uses gene therapy to try and restore the readability of the dystrophin gene. I do not know whether this is open only for patients in the USA and what the inclusion criteria are. You can find more information about this here: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04240314?term=exon+2&cond=Duchenne+Muscular+Dystrophy&draw=2&rank=1

      Learning difficulties are common in Duchenne patients. Dystrophin is also present in the brain and lack of this causes amongst others the problems you describe (automization and focusing). So this is part of the disease. There are studies done into how to best deal with these learning difficulties. Jos Hendriksen is a Dutch neuropsychiatrist who has done work on this.

      I am not a clinician so I cannot advise on medical treatments. However, what I’ve learned from Duchenne patients is that they appreciate it if their parents treat them like normal boys/men even if there may be impediments (e.g. also helping with chores, but then those that they could do).

      If you look for inforation, I suggest also starting with the World Duchenne Organization. This is a collaborative effort of the Duchenne Parent orginisations around the world https://www.worldduchenne.org/. You will be able to find a lot of information there.

      Take care and do not hesitate to ask other questions either here or via email (a dot m dot rus at lumc dot nl).


      1 April, 2021 at 10:15 am Reply

  • Agnetta

    Hello Maam ,
    I’ve heard of Gene therapy treatment for DMD. Which will be coming soon . I just want to know the status of it ? How long will it take for a common man to access it ? Is it a one time treatment ? My son is 4 yrs old . What should i do right now , go for a steroid as of now ? Go for exon skipping as well ?? Or wait till he gene therapy is been approved? Thank you Maam

    31 March, 2021 at 5:29 pm Reply

  • Agnetta

    Hello Madam ,
    My son is 4 yrs old . He has been diagnosed with DMD. We have visit few doctors and they have suggested for the exodys 51 therapy as his deletion is 45-50. I just want to know how effective is this ? Are there many side effects ? When can i start my sons therapy as in, right now or when we see some symptoms in future ? How successful is this treatment in the world? Pls give me your opinions Doctor. Thank you

    27 March, 2021 at 2:29 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Agnetta,
      I am sorry to hear about your son being diagnosed with DMD.

      Indeed for a deletion of exon 45-50, exon 51 skipping can restore the genetic code and dystrophin production. Exondys51 is a drug that induces exon 51 skipping. It is approved in the USA for all patients with eligible mutations (so no age specified), but not yet anywhere else. For now it is approved based only on the fact that the protein that is missing in Duchenne (dystrophin) is restored at very low levels. What is not yet known is whether these low levels are sufficient to slow down the disease progression. This is something that is still being evaluated in clinical trials around the world. As far as I am aware, exondys51 does not induce a lot of side effects. It needs to be delivered via intravenous infusion once weekly.

      I am sorry I cannot give you more information than this. In summary: exondys51 is only approved in the USA, we know it restores dystrophin a minute amounts but we do not yet know whether this will have an effect on disease progression.

      Best regards

      29 March, 2021 at 10:26 am Reply

  • julio cesar

    it´s any recently news about DMD exon 2 skipping research?

    22 March, 2021 at 10:33 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      I am not aware of any updates.

      23 March, 2021 at 10:42 am Reply

  • Mistu ghosh

    My son has exon 44 deletion out of frame, what is the treatment for him, though he is having defcort at present and he is 8 years old now, will exon 45 skipping be an option? if so how it will work? please give your valuable reply

    16 March, 2021 at 3:26 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Mistu

      First of all it is important to give your son optimal care – like you are doing, with corticosteroid treatment.

      Duchenne is caused by the dystrophin gene being unreadable for the protein translation machinery. The exon skipping approach aims to make the code readable so a partially functional dystrophin can be produced rather than no dystrophin at all. For a deletion of exon 44, exon 45 skipping would restore the genetic code. Exon 45 skipping can be achieved by casimersen. This compound is approved by the FDA since last month. However, the approval was based only on dystrophin restoration. What is not yet clear is whether the low amounts of dystrophin restored by casimersen will slow down disease progression. Clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate this at the moment. If you live in the USA you could request casimersen treatment (with the caveat that it may not slow down disesae progression while it is a weekly intravenous infusion). Outside of the USA you could consider taking part in a clinical trial with the caveats that 1) it may not slow down disease progression 2) there are additional burdensome evaluations involved in clinical trial participation.

      You can find more on the casimersen clinical trial here: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04179409?term=casimersen&cond=Duchenne+Muscular+Dystrophy&draw=2&rank=2

      Best regards

      16 March, 2021 at 3:51 pm Reply

  • Milka M

    My son has DMD gene duplication 18-44. He is 7 yrs now. We are still not taking steroide because of possible side effects, but we decided to start with DEFLAZACORT. Once Vomorolone is available in Slovenia, we could continue with that.
    What is the prognosis for my son’s mutation I would like to ask You about gene therapies currently in clinical trials and whether any of this would be an option for him. Would CRISPR Cas9 be the option for him? Or exon skipping 45 Casimersen? I would also like to ask about dosing steroide, do you recommend more daily or weekend dose.
    Thank You very much for your answers.

    Best regards

    14 March, 2021 at 10:24 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Milka

      I am sorry to hear about your son having DMD. Hopefully vamorolone will turn out to be a safe and effective alternative to corticosteroids (it is currently tested in clinical trials).

      It is difficult to say anything about the prognosis. Especially large duplications, such as the one your son has, are known to not follow the rules, meaning that it is possible he will have a slower progression but also that he will have typical DMD progression. The only way to find out is to see what happens when he grows older. I’m sorry I cannot say more about this.

      For your questions:

      I am not an MD so cannot give you a recommendation about the dosis regimen of corticosteroids. You have to discuss the pros and cons with your treating physician and then make your own decision I’m afraid.

      Micro-dystrophin gene therapy would in principle apply to your son (it is not mutation specficic). Currently this is only tested in clinical trials.

      Casimersen would in theory also work – however, because large duplications often do the unexpected in the process from gene to transcript to protein, and the exon skipping approach (casimersen) influences the process of transcript formation, it is not a guarantee that after exon skipping, your son would make dystrophin. Likely this is something that first would have to be tested. Note that casimersen is only approved in the USA and not in Europe. Clinical trials are ongoing worldwide though.

      Finally the CRISPR Cas9 option: first note that CRISPR Cas9 is currently in preclinical studies as a whole. So there is no disease for which this technique has been approved. There are many unknowns for now about safety (because it causes irreversible changes in the DNA). In theory editing out the duplication would restore the normal dystrophin transcript and protein. However, because the duplication is so large, this would likely not be very efficient. Much more preclinical research is required for this.

      I am sorry I cannot give you more positive answers.


      15 March, 2021 at 8:15 am Reply


    Dear Annemieke ,my son is 6.5y old. He is in Vamorolone study and he is doing great. We have not seen any side effect so far. He has a frequently mutation, DELETION OF EXON 44.
    I am wondering if you know what is prognosis of this mutation (deletion of exon 44) in Dystrophin gene? I am also interesting on Casimersen for my son, what is your opinion on this treatment?
    Thank you very much for your ansvers.
    Kind regards, Sanja

    11 March, 2021 at 10:32 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Sanja,

      Happy to hear your son is doing so well! For a deletion of exon 44 I would expect typical DMD. However, you are probably aware that there is no such thing as typical DMD, but that there are patients who progress faster than others. Likely this is due to a combination of genetic factors – the majority of which we have no idea about. Sorry I am so vague, but this is the best answer I can give you.

      Casimersen has been approved by the FDA for use in DMD patients with eligible mutations (such as indeed a deletion of exon 44). The approval is based only on dystrophin restoration (of ~1% after a year of treatment). What is not yet know is whether this low amount of dystrophin restoration is enough to slow down the progression of the disease. Currently ongoing clinical trials are done to test this. So we know the therapy works in that it restores dystrophin, but we do not know yet whether this will have a therapeutic effect (slower disease progression). Note that the treatment involves weekly intravenous infusions so this is more burdensome than vamorolone (tablet).

      Best regards

      12 March, 2021 at 12:43 pm Reply

  • Hits

    Exon 45 to 51 deletion treament are available……

    8 March, 2021 at 7:58 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      A deletion of exon 45-51 does not disrupt the genetic code. So this deletion is expected to result in Becker muscular dystropy. There are currently no approved drugs for Becker but several are in development. The Duchenne Parent Project Onlus from Italy recently had a session on Becker therapy development during their virtual meeting (see http://conferenza.parentproject.it/).

      If the mutation is found in a patient with Duchenne (so severe symptoms already at 3-4 years old), something strange is happening to prevent this individual from making dystrophin. For mutation specific approaches, this first has to be elucidated. However, there are also approaches in clinical trials that are not mutation specific (e.g. AAV micro-dystrophin gene therapy, givinostat, vamorolone etc). You can find an overview of these approaches here: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/ (I hope to soon be able to update this). Updates can also be seen using the link to the Italian parent project conference.


      9 March, 2021 at 10:40 am Reply

  • Sheila newby

    Hi my son has duchenne muscular dystrophy he is nearly 5 he has deletions 46/47 is there any treatment for him at the moment ?

    4 March, 2021 at 1:59 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Sheila,
      A deletion of exon 46-47 disrupts the genetic code. The code can be made readable by exon 45 skipping. In the USA a drug for exon 45 skipping was approved on Feb 25 2021 (casimersen). Outside of the USA, Sarepta (the company developing casimersen) is conducting clinical trials with casimersen.

      Note that the approval was only based on the ability of casimersen to restore very low amounts of dystrophin (1%). Currently ongoing trials are needed to see if this also results in a slower disease progression.

      Please do not hesitate to ask me additional questions should you have them


      4 March, 2021 at 2:44 pm Reply

  • Sara

    My son is 13 he has deletion exon 43, would exon skipping 44 be suitable for him ,diagnosed age 9

    1 March, 2021 at 2:33 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Sara,
      Exon 44 skipping would restore the genetic code for an exon 43 deletion. Please note however that exon 44 skipping is currently in a preclinical development stage.

      Best regards

      1 March, 2021 at 2:45 pm Reply

  • Shilpa Sethi

    Dear Dr. Aartsma-Rus,
    My son 15 year old is DMD. His exon 45 is deleted. I came to know that he is amenable to exon 44 skipping. I need to know about the progress of any research going on for 44 exon skipping
    Regards Shilpa

    1 March, 2021 at 11:39 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Shilpa,

      Indeed exon 44 skipping would restore the genetic code for an exon 45 deletion. However, exon 44 skipping is currently not evaluated in clinical trials. During the most recent presentation by Sarepta at the Italian Duchenne Parent Project however, they mentioned that exon 44 skipping is in preclinical development: http://conferenza.parentproject.it/schedule/ The video should be available on youtube.
      If and when exon 44 skipping compounds will be tested in clinical trials is not known yet.

      Best regards

      1 March, 2021 at 12:58 pm Reply

  • Maria Lujan

    Hello, my son is 9 yrs old and has DMD nonsense mutation on exon 44. Is exon skipping an option at this time?

    26 February, 2021 at 4:14 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Maria,

      No exon skipping is not an option. If we skip the exon with the nonsense mutation (exon 44), this will cause a frame-shift. In other words, skipping this exon will make the code unreadable. So that will not improve matters, because still no dystrophin can be produced.

      However, ataluren/translarna is a drug that is approved to treat ambulant Duchenne patients with nonsense mutations in Europe and several other countries as well. Depending on where you live, this may be an option.

      Best regards

      1 March, 2021 at 12:56 pm Reply

  • Camelia

    Hi Dear Dr.Aartsma-Rus

    My son has a point deletion on exon 45 out of frame.
    I would like to know if at the moment are any ongoing trials for his mutation and if there is any chance for him to be accepted, considering that he is not walking anymore and his arms become weaker every day.
    Thank you!
    Kind Regards
    Camelia Marian, Ianis’s mum

    25 February, 2021 at 9:47 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Camelia,
      I am sorry to hear about your son having Duchenne. If he has a small mutation within exon 45 that disrupt the reading frame, he is unfortunately not eligible for mutation specific therapies that are currently in development. Translarna/ataluren only works for nonsense mutations (small mutations that maintain the reading frame). Exon skipping will not work either because if we skip the exon with the mutation (exon 45) that will not help, as skipping this exon will also be out of frame.

      There are also approaches in development that are not mutation specific however. For some of them companies are planning trials also in non-ambulant patients. The most recent update on this was presented at the meeting of the Italian Parent Project. You can watch the presentations on youtube: http://conferenza.parentproject.it/schedule/

      I am sorry I do not have a better answer for you

      1 March, 2021 at 12:54 pm Reply

  • Mr Singh

    Hello Dear Dr. Aartsma-Rus

    My Three year Son has been told he has (( hemizygous duplication of exon 3-4))

    What does this mean ?
    kind regards

    24 February, 2021 at 7:56 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Mr Singh,
      I am sorry to hear your son has a mutation in his DMD gene. A duplication of exon 3-4 means these exons are present twice. The question is whether this mutation was found because your son has symptoms of Duchenne, or whether it was found by chance. The reason I ask is that duplications can cause Duchenne, but also Becker or no disease at all. If you want to provide me more information, you can also email me direction at a dot m dot rus at lumc dot nl.

      Finally, I’ll explain what hemizygous means. Our genes are located on chromosomes. We have two copies of each chromosomes – one from our father and one from our mother. This means that we have two copies of each genes as well. When both genes are the same, we say this is ‘homozygous’, when they are different we say ‘heterozygous’. There is one exception: the sex chromosomes. Females have two X-chromosomes, while men have an X and a Y chromosome. This means that men have only one copy of each gene on the X-chromosome. The dystrophin gene is located on the X-chromosome. When there is a mutation or variation in the X-chromosome in a man, this is called hemizygous.

      25 February, 2021 at 10:51 am Reply

  • julio cesar

    thanks by your fast answer, best regard.

    19 February, 2021 at 3:53 pm Reply

  • Jia

    Dear Dr. Aartsma-Rus,

    My family member (male, 9.5 years) has been diagnosed with DMD very recently. His deletions are exons 10-43.

    1) Do these deletions mean that he is amenable to exon 44 skipping only?
    2) Are there any current treatment options (besides steroids) or trials in the foreseeable future that he may qualify for?
    3) We have come across some research that indicates that patients that are amenable to exon 44 skipping may have delayed loss of ambulation as compared to patients that are amenable to certain other types of exon skipping. What are your thoughts on that?

    As you can imagine, we are very eager to better understand this disease and explore all treatment options.

    Thanks very much in advance!

    18 February, 2021 at 7:34 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Jia,

      1. When considering exon skipping, indeed only exon 44 skipping would restore the genetic code.

      2. There are many different therapeutic approaches in clinical development that do not depend on the mutation. e.g. AAV-microdystrophin gene therapy and compounds to improve muscle quality. See this overview that I hope to update soon – still it will give you an idea of the different approaches currently in clinical trials. https://treat-nmd.org/treat-nmd-diseases/duchenne-muscular-dystrophy/#research-overview-link

      3. The finding that exon 44 skippable patients have on average a slower disease progression has been found in different independent cohorts in different countries. So I am convinced this is a true thing. However, these analyses look at averages. On average exon 44 skippable patients have a slower disease progression than those that have other mutations. That means it is still possible that a poor performing exon 44 skippable patient does worse than a good performing ‘other’ patient. Hopefully your family member is a good performing exon 44 skippable patient though.

      Best regards

      19 February, 2021 at 11:22 am Reply

  • julio cesar

    it´s any new research results of a exon 2 skipping?, I was looking for in any DMD research page but i´m not find anything new about it

    18 February, 2021 at 4:27 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Julio,

      Apologies for not updating the DMD research page. It is on the to do list. What has been presented at meetings is that 2 DMD patients have been treated with the AAV U7snRNP (the exon 2 skipping antisense ‘gene’). Biopsies were taken and dystrophin was seen at low levels (~2% in one and ~8% in the other patient). This was presented last October at the WMS meeting and I have not heard of an update since.


      19 February, 2021 at 11:17 am Reply

  • Eyad

    My friend’s son 8 years boy has deletion of exons 45 – 47, would you kindly advise available treatment options? Thanks

    15 February, 2021 at 3:09 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Eyad,

      This is an in-frame deletion, meaning that it does not disrupt the code. As such, Becker muscular dystrophy would be the expected disease. However, exceptions do occur, so if the disease looks like Duchenne (difficulty with walking and stair climbing from 2-3 years of age), he would have Duchenne. Depending on the disease, care would very. For Duchenne guidelines for care are in place. For Becker this is not the case to my knowledge. In either case, he should be seen by a neuromuscular specialist.
      Therapies for Duchenne that are approved are all mutation specific. Unfortunately, there is no specific treatment for this mutation.


      15 February, 2021 at 8:35 am Reply

  • Susanna

    Dear Professor!
    My 7 month old grandchild was diagnosed with DMD( 45 exon deletio).
    I know we have a few good years, but we need a safty trial for a future.
    I heard about Viltolarsen to exon 53 skipping.
    Wich exon skipping is working for 45 exon deletio?
    Thank you for your answer
    Best regards

    24 January, 2021 at 10:34 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Susanna,
      I am sorry to hear your grandchild was diagnosed with DMD. With optimal care, there will be many good years. However, I understand you are also looking into treatment options.

      The exon skipping approach aims to make the genetic code for the dystrophin protein readable. In DMD, this code is mutated making it unreadable. By making it readable the muscle can produce a shorter but partially functional dystrophin protein, which is better than no dystrophin protein at all.
      This approach is however mutation specific. So depending on where the code is mutated, different exons have to be skipped to make the code readable.

      Viltolarsen (exon 53 skipping) will not work for an exon 45 deletion. Rather, exon 53 skipping for a patient with an exon 45 deletion, will make the code even more unreadable.
      There are two other exon skipping drugs approved in the US: golodirsen (also exon 53 skipping so same story) and eteplirsen (exon 51 skipping, which unfortunately also does not work for an exon 45 deletion).

      Casimersen is in development for exon 45 skipping. FDA will discuss the approval (or not) of this compound in February this year. Exon 45 skipping will unfortunately also not help for your grandchild’s mutation. He does not have exon 45, so it is not possible to skip it.

      To make the code readable for an exon 45 deletion, exon 44 OR exon 46 should be skipped. I know Sarepta is working on preclinical studies for exon 44 skipping but I have not heard them present plans to move this into clinical trials. Other exon skipping companies may also work on exon 44 skipping.

      I am sorry I cannot give you more positive news. Please note that there are also many therapeutic approaches evaluated in trials that do are not mutation specific. These target all Duchenne patients.

      Warm regards and do not hesitate to contact me if you have any further questions


      25 January, 2021 at 10:45 am Reply

  • Amro Mejri


    I’m from Tunisia, I was diagnosed when I was 10 years old as having DMD (and now I’m 21) , and they said that I don’t have any deleted or duplicated exons, I just have a mutation in some of them (one or more)
    but they don’t know exactly which one, because they couldn’t continue their analysis back then.
    So, now after I heard about the recently approved method (which is “exon skipping”) I wanted to ask you if you can guide me so I can reach an hospital in any country to take this method (the government of my country will take care of the price if it very high, so you just have to guide me, if you want)

    Thanks in advance.

    16 January, 2021 at 1:51 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Amro,

      Exon skipping is a mutation specific approach. Duchenne is caused by mutations that make the genetic code of dystrophin unreadable. Exon skipping aims to make the code readable again. Which exon needs to be skippend and whether exon skipping will work at all depends on where the mutation is. For now exon skipping is used only for patients with deletions and duplications. So for your mutation this will unfortonately not work.
      There is another approach, nonsense codon read through, that works for a subset of small mutations (i.e. those that are nonsense mutations). However, to know whether you would be eligible it is crucial that you know your excact mutation is. So my first advise would be to have them identify this. Note that 10 years ago finding small mutations was challenging, while now it is easier. Also for laboratories that cannot do this analyisis themselves, there are opportunities to send the DNA to other labs that can do this type of analysis.

      I hope this helps.


      18 January, 2021 at 8:59 am Reply

  • Suniel Singh Makh

    My friends son has been diagnosed with Duchenne. Missing exon 51

    Is there treatment you can offer to help?

    14 January, 2021 at 8:12 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Suniel,
      I am sorry to hear about your son’s friend being diagnosed with Duchenne. This disesae is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that make the code unreadable. Therefore no dystrophin protein can be produced. Since dystrophin has a stabilizing function in muscle during contraction, muscle lacking dystrophin are very sensitive to damage and this results in Duchenne patients gradually losing their muscle tissue and function.

      At the moment there is no cure for this disease. However, the disease can be slowed down by using good care. There are care guidelines that you can find here.https://treat-nmd.org/care-overview/the-diagnosis-management-of-dmd/guide-for-families/guide-for-families-in-different-languages/

      In addition, therapies are in development for Duchenne and some are already approved. You can find an overview here: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/(I hope te be able to update this soon). The currently approved therapies are all mutation specific. This means they only work for some mutaitons. Unfortuantely, none of these approved therapies work for a deletion of exon 51.
      Eteplirsen is a compound that induces exon 51 skipping and that way makes the dystrophin gene code readable again. However, because your friends’ son does not have exon 51, this exon cannot be skipped (it is already missing). Golodirsen and viltolarsen induce exon 53 skipping. However, exon 53 skipping does not make the code readable for a deletion of exon 51. Finally, ataluren makes the cell ignore premature stop signals. This works only for a specific type of mutation (premature nonsense mutations), and not for exon deletions.

      I am sorry I cannot be of more help.


      15 January, 2021 at 8:38 am Reply

  • Andreea

    Hi, my son has been diagnosed with DMD. He is 11 month old. He’s exon missing is exon 51. Is there any treatment for this ? On the letter is saying loss, encompassing 51. What dose this exactly means? Is an exon missing and is there anything I can do?
    Please help

    14 January, 2021 at 6:47 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Andreea,
      I am sorry to hear about your son being diagnosed with Duchenne. This disesae is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that make the code unreadable. Therefore no dystrophin protein can be produced. In your son’s case, the code becomes unreadable because one of the coding pieces (exons) is missing. The exons fit together like puzzle pieces normally. Due to exon 51 missing, they do not ‘fit’ and the code becomes unreadable and the muscles cannot translate the code into dystrophin protein.

      At the moment there is no cure for this disease. However, the disease can be slowed down by using good care. There are care guidelines that you can find here.https://treat-nmd.org/care-overview/the-diagnosis-management-of-dmd/guide-for-families/guide-for-families-in-different-languages/

      In addition, therapies are in development for Duchenne and some are already approved. You can find an overview here: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/(I hope te be able to update this soon). The currently approved therapies are all mutation specific. This means they only work for some mutations. Unfortuantely, none of these approved therapies work for a deletion of exon 51.
      Eteplirsen is a compound that induces exon 51 skipping and that way makes the dystrophin gene code readable again. However, because your son does not have exon 51, this exon cannot be skipped (it is already missing). Golodirsen and viltolarsen induce exon 53 skipping. However, exon 53 skipping does not make the code readable for a deletion of exon 51. Finally, ataluren makes the cell ignore premature stop signals. This works only for a specific type of mutation (premature nonsense mutations), and not for exon deletions.

      I am sorry I cannot be of more help. If you have additional questions, please do not hesitate to ask.


      15 January, 2021 at 8:41 am Reply

  • julio cesar

    sorry, my question last December 22 was if anybody knows something a results of a two child’s already inoculate with the solution of an exon 2 duplication.

    In October 2020, Megan Waldrop said the encourage results but since them, nothing else was said by the nationwide children´s.

    Best regard, Julio.

    6 January, 2021 at 10:00 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      I have only heard the results that were presented at the World Muscle Society meeting, where they found dystrophin restoration in two patients treated with the ‘exon 2 skip antisense gene therapy’. Low dystrophin levels were found in both patients (1-2% in one and 6% in the other patient).

      Best regards

      7 January, 2021 at 10:21 am Reply

  • Mel

    My 3 year old son was diagnosed with DMD we were advised he has a hemicigote genotype for a pathogenic variant of point-transition type and that eliminates to the Intron 5 splicing accepting canon site of the DMD gene. Do you have any info on this particular deletion?

    Best regards


    28 December, 2020 at 7:33 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Mel,

      I am sorry to hear about your son being diagnosed with DMD.
      DMD is caused by changes in the DNA that cause the dystrophin gene code to become unreadable. Therefore, the dystrophin protein cannot be translated from the DMD gene.
      The pieces of the gene that contain the genetic information for the dystrophin protein are called exons. These exons are recognized by the cells via specific ‘signals’, which are called splice donor and splice acceptor site. In case of you son’s mutation, one of these signals is not functionig, i.e. the spilce acceptor site in intron 5. This intron is located between exon 5 and exon 6. The splice acceptor site of intron 5 in involved in the recognition of exon 6. When the acceptor site does not function properly, the exon involved is not recognized by the cell. Therefore, when the exons are joined together by the cell, in case of your son, exon 6 is not included. This causes the protein code to become unreadable and therefore no dystrophin is produced by your son’s muscle cells.

      There are many therapies in development for DMD. Some are approved already – however, these are ‘mutation specific’ therapies, meaning they only work for specific variants. There is no specific therapy for your son’s particular variant. However, there are therapies in development that apply to all variants. You can find an overview here: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/

      Furthermore, it is of the utmost importance that your son has access to the proper care – good care can delay the disease a lot. More information on the care guidelines in different languages can be found here: https://treat-nmd.org/care-overview/the-diagnosis-management-of-dmd/guide-for-families/guide-for-families-in-different-languages/

      Best regards

      4 January, 2021 at 11:50 am Reply

  • julio cesar

    por favor alguien puede decirme los resultados de la investigación que se está haciendo en dos niños en el nationwide children´s de ohio para la eliminación de la duplicación del exon 2 del gen de la distrofina

    22 December, 2020 at 11:13 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      I am sorry but I only speak english and dutch


      4 January, 2021 at 11:50 am Reply

  • Lyndsey Robinson


    Our son was diagnosed with BMD last year at almost 9 years old. We were advised he has a deletion of exon 3-4 in the DMD gene.
    I have read conflicting information on the progression of this deletion, and if there are any treatments on the horizon to ease symptoms. Do you have any info on this particular deletion?



    2 December, 2020 at 5:01 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Lyndsey,

      I am sorry to hear about your son’s diagnosis. Based on the genetic properties of exon 3 and 4, indeed Becker would be expected. This deletion does not disrupt the genetic code, so the transcript remains readable for the protein translation system and this will produce a dystrophin that is slightly shorter than normal, but has its crucial domains.

      I have looked in our online database (www.dmd.nl) and found only two reports of this deletion – and they were very old. No information on the disease progression was given unfortunately.

      From a dystrophin protein perspective I would expect this mutation to be associated with a more severe type of Becker (i.e. milder than Duchenne, but more severe than ‘typical’ Becker). The dystrophin protein connects two proteins in the muscle fiber, actin and dystroglycan. In this way the ‘skeleton’ of the fiber is connected to the protective layer surrounding each muscle fiber. For dystrophin to be functional it needs to be able to bind to these two proteins. Dystroglycan binding happens at the end of the protein (encoded by exons 64-70). Actin binding happens via 3 parts, encoded by exon 2-8 (part 1 and 2) and exon 32-45 (part 3). As long as you have 1 actin binding part the dystrophin is functional. However, the first 2 actin binding parts are most important (they bind best so to say). Your son’s mutation disrupts at least one of these actin binding parts – and it is possible that due to this the second part will also not work optimally (part 1 and 2 work together). This is why patients who have mutations affecting the first 2 actin binding parts generally have a more severe Becker disease and this is why I would expect this for a deletion of exon 3-4.

      Having said all this: every patient is unique and everything is relative. There are examples of patients with mutations in the first 2 actin binding parts who have very mild Becker and there are patients who have mutations that leave all three actin binding parts in tact who still have severe Becker. We know what happens ‘on average’, but as I said each patient is unique and not ‘an average patient’. So it is always difficult to predict what will happen.

      I’m sorry I am unable to provide you with more clear information about the disease progression.

      With regards to therapies: Givinostat is a compound that is tested in both Duchenne and Becker patients in clinical trials. You can find more information on the trial in Becker patients here: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03238235?term=givinostat&cond=Becker+muscular+dystrophy&draw=2&rank=1

      Best regards

      3 December, 2020 at 9:46 am Reply

  • Aleksandra

    Dear Prof. Aartsma-Rus,
    I am a mother of a 10-month-old boy, while I was still pregnant, it turned out that my son has duplications of exons 45-48. I am a carrier. I searched the databases and found nothing. My son had CK levels and liver parameters checked and everything was normal so far. Can I ask you for help in understanding a few things: what can we expect? How could the location and type of our mutation theoretically affect the production of dystrophin? Are there any attempts to treat such mutations? Thank you for your answer and best regards from Poland

    15 November, 2020 at 10:32 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Aleksandra,

      Unfortunately I am unable to tell you what to expect. There are several possibilities.

      1. The duplication is located within the dystrophin gene. In this case this will disrupt the production of dystrophin. There are two ways in which mutations (genetic mistakes) can do this. First they can make the code unreadable. Then no dystrophin can be formed and individuals will develop Duchenne. Secondly, the code can remain readable. Then individuals can still form a dystrophin, only it is altered from what is normal. These altered dystrophins are partially functional and found in individuals with Becker.

      A duplication of exon 45-48 is expected to keep the code readable. So Becker would be expected. There are however, exceptions to the rule (patients where the code is unreadable who still develop Becker and vice versa). However, based on what you describe, Duchenne is not likely. Duchenne patients have elevated CK levels from birth onwards. Note that the liver parameters you mention are not actually liver parameters. Rather these enzymes exist in liver but also in muscle. Normally they are a sign of liver damage (which is more common than muscle damage). however, in case of muscle damage they are also leaking into the blood. So when they are elevated and CK is elevated in the blood this is a sign of muscle damage. Regardless, so far there seem to be no signs of muscle damage in your son – which is of course good.

      Becker is a very variable disease. Some individuals develop the first symptoms in midlife, while other develop them in adolesence. Sometimes there is even variation within the same family with the same mutation.

      2. For duplications only: it is possible that the duplicated region is not located in the dystrophin gene, but somewhere else in the genome. With generally used techniques (e.g. MLPA) this cannot be detected (whether it is in dystrophin or not). Most commonly the duplication will be within the dystrophin gene but there are examples where the duplicated part is somewhere else completely. In that case, dystrophin production is not affected at all.

      I am sorry I cannot give a more definitive answer. I hope you and your son stay well


      16 November, 2020 at 8:26 am Reply

  • Hüseyin çul

    my 8 year old boy was diagnosed with deletion of exon 45 2 months ago. Is there a cure for us?

    10 November, 2020 at 1:27 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Unfortunately there is currently no cure for Duchenne.
      However, the disease progression can be slowed down with good care. Guidelines for this are available and you can find them here in many languages: https://treat-nmd.org/treat-nmd-diseases/duchenne-muscular-dystrophy/#family-guides-link

      In addition, many therapies are in development and some are even approved in some countries. An overview can be found here: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/
      Shortly, the approved drugs are mutation specific and unfortunately do not apply to your son’s mutation.

      Finally, it has been found that patients with a deletion of exon 45 on average have a slower disease progression than most other patients. They still have Duchenne but compared to other patients, major disease milestones like loss of ambulation occur later.

      I am sorry I can not be more helpful than this.

      11 November, 2020 at 12:58 pm Reply

  • Milena

    Hello Prof.dr.Annemieke Aartsma-Rus,
    I’ d like to request if an exon skipping therapy for Exon 18 and 19 in the Dystrophin gene is available, since our 6y and 8 months old son was diagnosed with DMD 5 months ago. We are originally from Bulgaria but we are considering participating in every treatment that will hopefully improve our son’s quality of life. We started Deflazacort therapy 2 ago months and we are observing improvement in his motor functions.

    3 November, 2020 at 1:41 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Milena,

      Do I understand correctly that your son has a deletion of exon 18 and 19? Unfortunately this is a deletion that is very difficult to restore the genetic code for. It would require skipping of at least 10 exons – this is not feasible with current techniques. I am sorry to be the bearer of bad news. Note that there are many therapies in development that do not rely on the mutation.


      4 November, 2020 at 2:05 pm Reply

  • Daniel

    My son has deletion of exon 45. Are there any ongoing trials or medicine in progress for exon skipping 44? As i understood the group who are missing exon 45 are large. Why cant i find any ongoing projects skipping 44?

    18 October, 2020 at 8:33 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Daniel,
      Currently there are no exon 44 skipping trials ongoing. They have occurred in the past (Prosensa/BioMarin). This was with an exon skipping compound that had the same chemistry as drisapersen (exon 51 skipper). FDA did not approve drisapersen because they were unconvinced about the therapeutic effects and there were safety concerns. BioMarin then decided to stop the development of all exon skipping compounds with the same chemistry that were in clinical trials at that point (exon 44, exon 45 and exon 53) in addition to drisapersen (exon 51).

      Exon 51, exon 45 and exon 53 are the three most applicable exons (respectively 14%, 8% and 8% of patients) – exon 44 is next in line (6% of patients). I know that companies that work on exon skipping are doing preclinical work for exon 44 skipping (e.g. Sarepta Therapeutics), but I do not know if and when this will move into clinical development.

      Best regards

      19 October, 2020 at 7:37 am Reply

  • julio cesar ruiz

    sorry I´m a 9years old boy who have a DMD because of a exon 2 duplication and I would like to know the progress of a exon 2 skipping treatment.

    Best regard to you and to your family, best wishes to your brave son who is under this revolutionary treatments.

    22 September, 2020 at 9:24 pm Reply


    I am writing you in the name of a family ( I am Godfather of the kid ) that has a young boy with duchenne Exon deletion 44. The boy´s name is Angel Mercado, whose mother name is Euridisis Jimenez. ( Copied on this email )

    We are really interested to get him into this hopeful trial, thinking about his future.

    Let us know if he has the chance, and if we could contact you to talk about it.

    Thanks in advance for any information you could provide us.

    17 September, 2020 at 7:27 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Oliver and Euridisis,

      There are currently many clinical trials ongoing for Duchenne patients. You can find an overview e.g. here: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/
      Some of these approaches are mutation specific, stop codon readthrough (ataluren) and exon skipping. Ataluren would not be applicable for a deletion. Exon skipping would be an option – a deletion of exon 44 requires the skipping of exon 45 to make the code readable again. Exon 45 skipping is currently tested in clinical trials in the US, Europe and Japan. You can find more information about that also in the research overview.

      18 September, 2020 at 12:31 pm Reply

  • julio cesar ruiz

    I´m a father of a 7 years old boy, he have DMD because of exon2 duplication’, is any solution available today to solve this kind of mutation, in July 2018 I wrote you and the answer was very rapidly, I knew that Dr. Kevin Flanigan with Audentes Therapeutics is working in a AT’702 to skip the exon2 duplication, it is any update about the results of a two boys inoculated in January 2020?

    28 August, 2020 at 8:51 pm Reply

  • Ewelina

    Thank You very much for answer. I have one more question. What is currently available in the Netherlands for a 5-year-old boy? He has deletion 46,47. How we can help him now? What we can do that he will be longer efficient?

    27 May, 2020 at 7:13 pm Reply

  • Ewelina

    I have a questions about terapie exon skipping 45, because my son has deletion 46,47. We leave now in Nederland, will be this therapy also available in the Netherlands in the near future? Please Let me know.

    16 April, 2020 at 8:58 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Ewelina,
      Exon 45 skipping is currently tested in clinical trials. These are done to assess whether the compound to induce exon 45 skipping (casimersen) is effective and safe. Whether this therapy will be available in the Netherlands depends first on the outcome of the clinical trial. If it is unsafe or not effective it will of course not be approved. If it is deemed sufficiently effective and safe by the regulators (European Medicines Agency for Europe), it will be approved. Then, the drug will have to be marketed in each European country individually. So even if it is approved, there is no guarantee that it will be available in the Netherlands, because this depends on whether the company wants to market it in the Netherlands and how the Dutch Zorg Instituut Nederlands evaluates the drug. Regardless, all these processes (clinical trial, analysis of trial data, regulatory application, marketing in different countries) take time. So unfortunately, it will not be available in the near future.

      16 April, 2020 at 11:56 am Reply

  • Anonymous


    My son was recently diagnosed with mild form of Becker. He’s results show 48-49. He is 13 years old very active and no signs. This was accidental finding as he’s active playing competitive soccer and we noticed hamstring tightness no more than 3 times a year (plays about 125/games practice a year) after sports doctor recommended ck. Three ck tests highest one was over 2000. His heart test came perfect. Mother is the carrier, no noticeable signs. We do know which grandparents came from yet, but both are alive around 60s. Fully functional and no signs of muscle or health issues.

    What is the function of 48-49. Can other Exons fill in to continue providing muscle support needed.

    Is there a medicine/treatment?

    What kind of activities make it worse?

    What kind of activities make it better?

    We just found out about this before corona virus, which has stopped us from continuing doctors visits for additional info until further notice.
    Thank you!

    5 April, 2020 at 4:44 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      I am sorry to hear your son was diagnoses with Becker but of course I’m happy that the signs are very minimal.
      I am not a medical doctor or a rehabilitation specialist. As such I cannot recommend treatments or activities for your son. Is it possible to have a digital meeting with the specialists who diagnosed your son? They are probably better qualified to address your questions.


      6 April, 2020 at 8:22 am Reply

  • Parimita

    Hi,this is Parimita Rath, my son has been diagnosed of DMD recently. Is there any treatment Or clinical trials available for exon2 duplication in dmd.

    24 March, 2020 at 1:43 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Parimita,
      There is currently no therapy and there are currently no specific trials for an exon 2 duplication.
      However, Audentes and Prof Kevin Flanigan/Dr Nicolas Wein are preparing for a therapy for exon 2 duplications.

      You can find an overview of therapies in development here – these also include therapies that are not mutation specific and apply to all patients: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/

      25 March, 2020 at 8:11 am Reply

  • Irine Levchenko

    Dear Annemieke,
    My son is 7 years old, a genetic test confirmed the diagnosis of Duchenne myodystrophy – a deletion of 45 exon. At the moment, from the symptoms of the disease: it is difficult to climb the stairs, but he copes with it on his own, he runs in a peculiar, slow, jumping way, but also with difficulty. In general, a very active child, goes to school. Could there be a milder form of Duchenne or Becker with our deletion, despite the rule of violating the reading frame? I read some sources that spoke about exceptions to the reading frame rule, which included patients with a deletion of one45 exon in particular. It was an endogenous exon skipping, and this is somehow related to 44.
    And what do you think about the fate of research related to microdystrophin – will we live to see the medicine? We are from Russia, and, unfortunately, we do not have knowledgeable doctors, rehabilitation centers, or financial support for families. We are ready to go for treatment, or participation in trials to any part of the world.

    17 February, 2020 at 6:23 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Irene,

      I’m sorry to hear about your son. Indeed, a deletion of exon 45 can be milder than ‘typical’ Duchenne. This is because exon 44 is spontaneously skipped in all of us at a very low level. For healthy individuals this means that they make slightly less dystrophin. However, for a deletion of exon 45, skipping exon 44 makes the genetic code readable again, so this would mean your son can make a little bit of dystrophin. Not enough to prevent the disease and generally also not enough to have Becker, but slightly more than other Duchenne patients – and enough to have a slightly slower disease progression.

      For therapeutic approaches, I refer you to an overview available on the TREAT-NMD website: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/
      For microdystrophin specifically: this is still tested in clinical trials. We do not know if it works and whether it is safe. What we know is that some patients develop a severe immune response after treatment with the virusses that carry microdystrophin. We also know that treated patients will produce the microdystrophin. What we do not know is whether the microdystrophin is functional – it is very small – much smaller than the dystrophin Becker patients produce. We know it is functional in mice – but unfortunately that is no guarantee it will be functional in humans. We do know it is not a cure – it is a very small dystrophin – it will be less functional than the ‘regular’ dystrophin.

      Finally, it is important that your son receives the best care possible. There are care standards – a family guide is available in many languages including Russian. You can find more information here: https://treat-nmd.org/care-overview/the-diagnosis-management-of-dmd/guide-for-families/

      20 February, 2020 at 2:23 pm Reply

  • Sebastian

    Dear Annemieke,

    Thank you for the update, will exon skipping help in this case. Translarna is currently in trial phase here in India.


    27 January, 2020 at 5:58 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      We do not know whether exon skipping will help. For now we know that exon 51 skipping and exon 53 skipping can restore minute amounts of dystrophin. Whether this has functional effects we do not know yet – this is something Sarepta Therapeutics is currently establishing in phase 3 clinical trials. For exon 48 skipping we have no clinical evidence yet that it will restore dystrophin (or slow down disease progression).
      For translarna we know that it slows down disease progression in ambulant DMD patients – however, here the functional data was not yet sufficient for full approval. So in Europe translarna is conditionally approved and PTC Therapeutics is currently conducting a confirmatory phase 3 clinial trial.
      In summary, there is unfortunately no certainty yet.

      28 January, 2020 at 9:06 am Reply

  • Sebastian

    Dear Annemieke,

    My sons is tested positive for DMD, and his report results are mentioned below, can you kindly help me understand whether this is a non-sense mutation,
    What could be the possible treatment ahead?

    “A hemizygous nonsense variation in exon 48 of the DMD gene (chrX:g.31893448G>A; Depth: 218x)
    that results in a stop codon and premature truncation of the protein at codon 2319 (p.Gln2319Ter; ENST00000357033.4) was detected (Table). The observed variation has reported as pathogenic in the ClinVar database [18]. The p.Gln2319Ter variant has not been reported in the 1000 genomes, ExAC and our internal databases. ”


    26 January, 2020 at 12:39 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Sebastian,
      This is indeed a nonsense mutation. A nonsense mutation changes the code for an animo acit into a stop code (this is what the p.Gln2319Ter means – on position 2319 of the protein there is normally a glutamine, but due to the mutation there is a stop – Ter(mination).

      In Europe there is an approved treatment for ambulant patients aged 2 and up with nonsense mutations. It is called Translarna (or ataluren – same thing). Translarna is available in several European countries, as well as some other countries. It is conditionally approved based on trials that suggest it slows down disease progression in Duchenne patients to some extent.


      27 January, 2020 at 9:13 am Reply

  • navin jain

    my 09 year old son has exon 46&47 diletoin .any treatment for this.

    6 December, 2019 at 5:07 pm Reply

  • Kelly Colon

    I have a 12 week old son who has deletions 51-52. I was found to be a carrier with the same deletions during the third month of my pregnancy. Our doctors have been unable to find record of deletions 51-52 in 2 US databases and 1 in France. There is no known family history. We do know it is an in frame deletion and they suspect it is Becker. We continue to research but have been unsuccessful in finding really anything.

    If you have any information to share about deletions 51-52, please let me know. Thank you.

    13 November, 2019 at 10:34 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Kelly,

      I am sorry to hear about this story – must be very stressful for you.

      I have checked the DMD Leiden Open Variation Database and also there, there is no record of a deletion of exon 51-52. So based on humans we cannot make a comparison, only a prediction that likely this will be Becker.

      What I do know is that in a mouse model with a deletion of exon 52, skipping exon 51 restores production of dystrophin. This dystrophin lacks the parts encoded by exon 51 and exon 52 – like your son. This treatment is beneficial for this mouse, suggesting that at least in mouse a dystrophin lacking the parts encoded by exon 51 and exon 52 is partially functional.

      Humans and mice differ, so this is not a definitive answer. However, it makes it more likely that your son has of Becker muscular dystrophy.

      Best regards and take care,

      14 November, 2019 at 9:47 am Reply

  • julio C Ruiz Gallardo

    I´m a father of a 7 years old boy, he have DMD because of exon2 duplication’, is any solution available today to solve this kind of mutation, in July 2018 I wrote you and the answer was very rapidly, I knew that Dr. Kevin Flanigan with Audentes Therapeutics is working in a AT’702 to skip the exon2 duplication, it is any update about the clinical trial beginning date?

    5 November, 2019 at 7:18 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Julio,
      Audentes and Kevin Flanigan are still working on exon 2 skipping for exon 2 duplications. To my knowledge no announcements have been made about when the clinical trials will start.


      14 November, 2019 at 9:48 am Reply

  • Xhorxho Vesha

    Dear Doctor,

    Im a 23 year old boy with DMD exon 45 deletion from Tirana,Albania
    recently a group of scientists from Centogene took muscle samples from me and my parents.
    The results of the samples advise me exon skipping therapy, is there any bio pharm company or hospital who does the skipping for my exon?

    Every advise from you would be very helpful.
    Keeping in mind my age , i think something must be done before its too late.
    Best regards ,Xhorxho Vesha

    25 October, 2019 at 7:47 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Xhorxho,

      The genetic code for your deletion can be restored by exon 44 skipping. However, currently, exon 44 skipping is not tested in clinical trials.
      BioMarin/Prosensa did a test for exon 44 skipping a couple of years back, but that development stopped when they stopped with the drisapersen (exon 51 skipping) development, because the compounds used then were suboptimal (minor therapeutic effects in some patients and side effects in almost all patients).

      I am sorry I do not have better news for you.

      Best regards

      28 October, 2019 at 9:14 am Reply

  • Adrieanna Zimmerman


    My son has the dmd c.10567 g>c variant (p.Glu3523Gln)

    He has been diagnosed with fatigue and pain in lower extremities. He has show on a muscle biopsy small type 2 muscle fibers, CK has been fine they haven’t checked in since 2017. They said since he was the only one back in 2017 with the variant there wasn’t enough info and it would never affect him. They believe his leg pain, fatigue, motor delays are from something else.

    Anyways, I believe it is possibly the gene missense. But, since there is not enough information they say he’s fine go just keep doing occupational therapy and physical therapy. I’m not sure I’m at my wit ends.

    Thank you for you time.

    23 September, 2019 at 4:55 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Adrieanna

      It is possible that the fatigue and pain are not caused by this missense mutation but are due to a mutation elsewhere in another gene.
      Another option is that the mutation leads to altered splicing and that he skips exon 75 (which contains the missense mutation). If that would happen, this would abolish dystrophin production. However, since the mutation is almost at the end of the gene, it is possible that the resulting protein is partially functional.
      If a muscle biopsy was obtained they should be able to analyze whether exon 75 is skipped due to the mutation on ‘RNA level’ and whether dystrophin protein is produced or not.
      If there is dystrophin and if exon 75 is not skipped, the symptoms are due to another mutation in another gene.
      If there is a skip and/or if the protein is smaller or present in reduced amounts, this missense mutation does cause the symptoms most likely

      30 September, 2019 at 2:47 pm Reply

  • Maka

    Dear Prof. Dr. Annemieke Aartsma-Rus,

    I am mother of 30 years old daughter, who has congenital muscular dystrophy. We have tested Whole Exome Sequencing and Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing in Centogene Ag Am Strande 7, Germany.
    An the result is Lama2, Chr6(GRCH37):g. 129781432c>T, NM_000426. 3:c.6955c>T p.(Arg2319) Exon 49 HET and Lama2 Chr6(GRCh37):g.129475791G>A NM_000426.3:c.1169G>A p.(Cys390Tyr) Exon8 HET.

    We search for possible treatment for this diagnosis and We need to find scientist or doctor who works and is interested on this variant of illness.

    Please contact us.

    Thank you in advance,
    Best Regards
    Maka Kobakhidze

    7 August, 2019 at 8:39 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Maka,
      I am sorry to hear about your daughter. I am not an expert on congenital muscular dystrophy so I am afraid I cannot help you with the diagnosis.


      30 September, 2019 at 2:48 pm Reply

  • Rewan Tovi

    Hello doctor
    My son has been diagnosed with DMD , he is missing exon 46 and 47 . We live in Dallas TX I was wondering if there is any trials we could put him in.
    Thank you so much

    26 July, 2019 at 3:40 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      The genetic code for your son would be restored by exon 45 skipping. There is a clinical trial ongoing for an exon 45 skipping compound (casimersen, developed by Sarepta therapeutics).
      There are also many compounds tested that are mutation independent. For an overview please see: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/

      30 September, 2019 at 2:49 pm Reply

  • Rebekah

    Hi, my twins have just been diagnosed with having a duplication on exon 22.
    Is there any trials that they would be eligible for?

    Thank you

    26 July, 2019 at 1:25 pm Reply

  • Pratik chhatriwala

    My son is 1.5 yr has dmd and exon 46 47 duplication……..is there skipping therapi useful in that case…..

    13 July, 2019 at 10:13 am Reply

  • Yunni

    Hi, my 8th years old son has deletion of exons 49 to 52 in dystrophin gene. Is there any cure for him?

    20 June, 2019 at 3:47 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      This mutation disrupts the genetic code. Exon 53 skipping would restore the genetic code. Exon 53 skipping is currently tested in clinical trials. Thus far we know that this leads to very minor increases in dystrophin in treated patients. Whether this is enough to slow down the disease progression is not yet known.

      Note that unfortunately currently all therapies in development aim to slow down the disease progression for Duchenne patients. There is no cure – unfortunately the damage accumulated can not be undone and the functions lost cannot be regained. We hope to be able to do this in the future – for now we work on slowing down the progression – this is the only thing we can do with the tools available to us.

      30 September, 2019 at 2:54 pm Reply


    Dear Annemieke

    I’m father of DMD child from Taiwan,he been diagnosed as deletion of exon 46 to 50.
    We are so helpless and feel desperation day after day.
    If we’re interesting to join any clinical trial or treatment in the future, what can we do now?

    14 June, 2019 at 10:29 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      This would required the combined skipping of exon 45 and exon 51. The problem is that double exon skipping is much more challenging than single exon skipping. This is because currently the delivery of exon skipping compounds to skeletal muscle fibers is not very efficient. So only a few fibers will take up an exon skipping compound. When double exon skipping is required, fibers need to take up both compounds – the chance of this is very small.

      however, there are also compounds in development that apply to all mutations. See for an overview: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/

      30 September, 2019 at 2:57 pm Reply

  • mahnaz

    My cousin (a boy, 12 years old) was diagnosed with Duchenne and Becker MD. The mutation is EX45_54 DEL (Hemi) on DMD gene. He was very active and played a lot until 5 years old. then, he used to walk on toe. no one found the problem. now, he can not walk and he uses a wheelchair.
    Just to ask if there is any treatment currently or any medication to slow down the progression.
    Thank you

    22 April, 2019 at 7:06 pm Reply

  • Deepthi vemula

    Hii professor
    My 4 year old son is diagnosed with DMD his genetic test results have just come today
    Their is a deletion of Exons 46 and 47 in the DMD gene as tested by MLPA
    He has not started any medication as of now right now we r showing him in NIMHANS In Bangalore..
    I’m from India and we are ready to travel anywhere in the world to help him
    Please help us and suggest what step to take next..

    12 April, 2019 at 2:33 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      I can suggest you contact DART, a patient organization in Bangalore, that also coordinates research.

      There are currently many therapeutic approaches evaluated in clinical trials for Duchenne patients. See for an overview: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/
      There are also mutation specific approaches, which do not apply to all patients. However, your son’s mutation would require exon 45 skipping and there are trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this coordinated by Sarepta. The test compound is called casimersen.

      30 September, 2019 at 3:02 pm Reply

  • Rahul

    Hello Prof. Dr. Annemieke Aartsma-Rus,
    I am a father of child with exon 55 deletion reported in DNA Blood test.
    1. I want to know is MLPA report trustworthy or i need to go for another test/method/technique to reconfirm

    2. My kid is 5.6 yrs and is able to walk and play. only difficulty with him is stair climbing now.

    3. He is on put on Steroid 20mg, after a month having this medicines his face changed to moon one.

    4. What are the possible therapeutic treatments we can have in any part of world and would like to suggest Best Dr. in India to effectively treat my child as lot of them have already raised their hands i beilieve due to lack of knowledge on DMD

    Pl. pl. support my child to live a normal life with and strength to overcome this.

    Thanks & regards,

    9 January, 2019 at 11:36 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Rahul,

      I am sorry to hear about your son’s condition.
      With regards to your questions: Steroids unfortunately have side effects (such as the moon face) – however, they are slowing down the disease a lot. They allow patients to walk longer and have a better respiratory function and better survival among others.

      MLPA: when a deletion of one exon is found with MLPA, a second test is needed. MLPA uses probes to test whether the exon is there or not. Most likely your son has a deletion of exon 55 (i.e. exon 55 is not present). However, it is also possible that there is a small mutation within exon 55, which would mean that the probe cannot bind to exon 55. So a PCR test is needed to check whether exon 55 is deleted or not – generally this is done automatically, but please check with the team that did the diagnosis that this was done.

      At the moment there is no treatment available for Duchenne patients beyond the corticosteroid treatment and care (multidisciplinary care – see also the guidelines: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/care/dmd/diagnosis-management-DMD/

      Several mutation specific therapies are available, such as eteplirsen (exon 51 skipping, would not work for an exon 55 deletion) and translarna (only for nonsense codons, not for deletions).

      In India I know Dr Vishwanathan in Chennai – he has a lot of expertise with trreating DMD patients.


      14 January, 2019 at 10:22 am Reply

  • Kyle

    First of all, I want to thank you for your hard work. My son is 2 years old. We had a CK Blood Test done on him due to the fact that he was a late walker. The CK Levels came back at 15,800. We are now waiting for our Genetics Testing to be done. With the CK Levels being at that mark, is there any possibility of Becker’s MD? Or is that level of CK certainly Duchenne? Thank you so much.

    3 December, 2018 at 9:40 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Apologies for the late response, I missed this comment.

      Elevated CK indicates there is muscle damage. This can mean Duchenne or Becker or other muscle diseases. The genetic tests and the clinical evaluation are needed to assess whether your son has Duchenne or Becker.

      30 September, 2019 at 3:03 pm Reply

  • Bithika Ghosh

    Hello Anamica

    Both my sons have single deletion of 44. Can exon skipping help them

    12 November, 2018 at 6:32 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Bithika,

      Exon skipping for duplications is challenging. What would be required in case of your sons is skipping of either the first exon 44 OR the second exon 44. Either way would restore the normal dystrophin code. HOWEVER, the compounds used for exon skipping (antisense oligonucleotides, AONs) recognize both exons 44 – so there is a possibility that both exons will be skipped. This would disrupt the genetic code (just like the exon 44 duplication does).

      If we test AONs for exon 44 skipping in cultured cells of a patient with an exon 44 duplication, what we see is that both exons are skipped. So this is not helpful. It is possible however that when patient would be treated this would not be the case. For both exons to be skipped you need 2 AONs in the same cell (one to bind the first exon 44 and one to the second exon 44). In cultured cells this is easy to achieve (the cells receive an overdose of AONs so to say). However, in a human being the amount of AONs is much lower and as such it is anticipated that most cells will have no AON at all, and some will have 1 AON and hardly any with have 2 AONs. Therefore it is expected that in a patient, this would work better than in cells and that there might be some dystrophin restoration expected. However, exon skipping has so far never been tested in patients, so there is no hard evidence yet.

      At the moment there are no exon 44 skipping compounds in clinical development, so for now this is unfortunately only theoretical.

      12 November, 2018 at 10:36 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      In theory exon 45 skipping would restore the genetic code for your sons. This is currently evaluated in a clinical trial by Sarepta – the compound is called casimersen. It is not yet clear whether this treatment is safe or whether it leads to benefits.

      You can find an overview of this approach and other approaches in clinical developments here: https://treat-nmd.org/research-overview/dmd-research-overview/

      30 September, 2019 at 3:05 pm Reply

  • Federico

    What would be the prognosis for an in frame deletion of Exon 26-29?

    22 October, 2018 at 8:09 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      I would expect this to lead to a mild Becker disease. However, notably, there is a lot of variation observed between individuals – even with the same deletion – and there are also always exceptions to the rules. So possibly the prognosis is different

      30 September, 2019 at 3:06 pm Reply

  • Simona

    Hello my son who is 5 yr old has been diagnosed with problem of exon 57 of the DMD gene, is there any cure or medicine in the pipiline to correct this dysfunction of exons? C.8479G>T

    5 October, 2018 at 4:20 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      I think this is a so called nonsense mutation. If this is indeed the case, ataluren would be an approved therapy in Europe (not available in all countries though).
      The company developing this compound is called PTC Therapeutics.

      30 September, 2019 at 3:07 pm Reply

  • Mehwish

    Dear doctor,

    Can you kindly guide how can we determine whether a point mutation in DMD gene is in frame or out of frame mutation? and if a particular nonsense mutation can be corrected by ataluren.
    I would be grateful if you can provide me literature on the recent mutation spectrum of Duchenne worldwide and the diagnostic methods and therapies available so far.

    Thank you,

    15 September, 2018 at 6:40 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Mehwish,

      All nonsense mutations should be correctable by ataluren. Whether a point mutation is in-frame or out of frame depends on how many basepairs are involved (a basepair is a DNA building block). If there is a deletion or insertion of basepairs: if the number is divisible by 3 (e.g. deletion of 6 basepairs or insertion of 3 basepairs) the mutation is in-frame. If it is not divisible by 3 (e.g. deletion of 5 basepairs or insertion of 1 basepair), it is out-of-frame. A nonsense mutation does NOT disrupt the reading frame – however, because the code for an amino acid is changed into a STOP code, it leads to truncation of translation of the code from gene to protein and therefore a non functional protein. So the effect is the same (out-of-frame mutations also lead to a premature truncation of translation, but for a different reason – the code becomes unreadable).
      For a paper on diagnostics for Duchenne I refer you to this paper: https://jmg.bmj.com/content/53/3/145.long
      An overview of therapeutic approaches can be found here: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/dmd/research-overview/introduction/
      More information on mutations and their effects can also be found with the Dove tool: http://www.dmd.nl/DOVE

      17 September, 2018 at 3:27 pm Reply

  • Jelena

    Hi, my 4 year old son have DMD/BMD diagnosis and his result of DNA test is Exon deletions 45-53 , “in frame” mutation.I am not a carrier, so his doctor don’t know is this Becker or Duchenne.Can you help me about his diagnose?

    5 September, 2018 at 9:19 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Jelena,
      This is an in-frame mutation so I would expect a Becker disease. However, there are always exceptions to the reading frame rules possible. What is leading is how your son clinically develops. If he has a severe progression and symptoms at a very young age, that resembles Duchenne. However, if he has not a lot of symptoms at 4 years, that resembles Becker.

      30 September, 2019 at 3:09 pm Reply

  • julio C Ruiz Gallardo

    Thank you very much for your prompt response, I think I have the child well on track because he is enrolled precisely with Kevin Flanigan at the Ohio hospital, where he is working on the subject, what worries me is that he is alone with his team watching this issue of exon 2 duplication.

    Anyway, I thank you for your attention and I am happy to know that there are still good people in this world who try by all means to make happy the families that suffer for their children.

    Best regard, Julio.

    2 July, 2018 at 4:35 pm Reply

  • Anne Trehu

    What is the anticipated prognosis for a duplication of exons 52 and 53?

    30 June, 2018 at 2:39 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      A duplication of exon 52 and exon 53 would be expected to maintain the reading frame. So in theory one would expect this mutation to be associated with Becker muscular dystrophy. However, duplication mutations often have unpredictable impacts on how the gene transcripts are processed and a significant number of duplication mutations that do not disrupt the readin frame result in Duchenne, and vice versa duplication mutations that disrupt the reading frame can also result in Becker muscular dystrophy.

      So the ‘prediciton’ is a lot less reliable than with deletion mutations.

      2 July, 2018 at 4:06 pm Reply

  • julio C Ruiz Gallardo

    im a father of a 7 years old boy, he have DMD because of exon2 duplication’, is any solution available today to solve this kind of mutation.

    27 June, 2018 at 10:07 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      At the moment there is no cure for Duchenne. There are therapies in development that aim to slow down disease progression. This is done by one in 2 ways: 1) trying to restore the missing protein 2) trying to improve the muscle quality.

      You can find an overview of these approaches here: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/dmd/research-overview/introduction/ (will be updated this summer)

      Restoring dystrophin is often done in a mutation specific way. For an exon 2 duplication, exon 2 skipping would restore the genetic code of the dystrophin gene. At the moment this is not tested in clinical trials, but Kevin Flannigan is doing preclinical tests to assess exon 2 skipping in cell and mouse models.

      28 June, 2018 at 4:11 pm Reply

  • Akash

    Respected Doctor,
    Hello my son who is 3 yr old has been diagnosed with duplication of exon from 8 to 11 of the DMD gene, is there any cure or medicine in the pipiline to correct this dysfunction of exons?

    25 May, 2018 at 1:16 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Akash,

      Research is ongoing on genome editing for duplication mutations in Toronto (lab of Ronald Coen) -however, this is in a very early stage (cultured cells). There is a lot of research happening on approaches that improve muscle quality – some of which are in clinical trials and all of which are not mutation specific (i.e. they apply to all patients). Furthermore, there are trials ongoing on bringing back a short version of dystrophin (micro-dystrophin) with viral vectors. You can see an overview of all the research that is in trials or close to trials here: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/dmd/research-overview/introduction/

      28 May, 2018 at 7:57 am Reply

  • Sai

    My son have Exons 45,46 and 47 are deleted. He is 32 months old now,we don’t see any notable symptoms so far. He is ahead to reach his motor skills like crowling and walking.
    When he tested for jaundice last year due to some other illness his liver enzymes were elevated and they see liver was normal so they started testing ck and genetic testing.
    His ck levels drawn 3 times(Oct 2017- 15k, March 2018- 13k and April 2018- 29k)

    His doctor is saying RNA analysis is needed to confirm whether this is mild and severe type though it’s a inframe mutation.
    We are so scared what will be the outcome of RNA tests.
    Can you please help to confirm is this kind of mutation happened to anyone already ( Exons 45,46 and 47 deleted) and what will be the type of their disease whether it’s mild or severe.please help.

    28 April, 2018 at 6:18 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Sai,

      Sorry to hear your son has a mutation in his dystrophin gene, but glad to hear he has no notable symptoms so far.

      For mutations that are in-frame, one would expect the milder disease (Becker) rather than the severe disease (Duchenne). Note that RNA analysis requires a muscle biopsy – which is a painful and invasive procedure. As such, this is only recommended when the symptoms do not match the genetics (e.g. in-frame with severe symptoms or out-of-frame with mild symptoms). This does happen sometimes (in about 10% of cases) and the mutation you describe has been found in Becker patients but also in some Duchenne patients.

      When the symptoms match the genetics (90% of cases), the international guidelines for Duchenne diagnosis, care and management (see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5869704/figure/F2/ – from this paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5869704/) do not recommend RNA analysis.

      So I recommend that you ask the doctor why (s)he thinks RNA is needed. Is the disease more severe than expected for a Becker patient? If so, then the analysis makes sense. However, if your son does not have the typical Duchenne symptoms, I do not think the RNA analysis is needed.

      30 April, 2018 at 12:49 pm Reply

      • Sai

        Thank you so much for your response
        Doctor mentioned it’s a blood test for RNA analysis not the muscle biopsy.
        They say in particular in frame deletions (like my son’s) needs RNA analysis to confirm whether it’s a Becker or Duchene.

        Does CK elevation (as it was around 30k ) matters to confirm Becker Vs Duchenne.

        30 April, 2018 at 1:49 pm Reply

        • Exonskip

          CK elevation means there is something wrong with the muscle – in case of muscular dystrophy the muscular dystrophy is ‘what is wrong’ and why the enzyme leaks from the muscle into the blood. The elevation points to a problem with muscles, but it does not tell you which problem there is (i.e. which protein is missing or not only partially functional) – this is why the genetic tests are needed. One cannot say which muscular dystrophy a person has based on how high the CK levels are because CK levels also vary due to e.g. time of day, how active you have been and how muscular you are etc.

          RNA analysis in the blood will not be informative at all. Dystrophin is not expressed in the blood, which will make the analysis very challenging and has the risk of misinterpretation. The guidelines (internationally recognized, published in The Lancet) say that DNA analysis by MLPA is sufficient for deletions involving multiple exons. There is never a need for RNA analysis in the blood (because this is not informative) – if the symptoms do not match the genetics, RNA anlaysis can be done on muscle.

          Feel free to direct the doctor to me for his/her questions about this (a.m.rus@lumc.nl)

          30 April, 2018 at 2:07 pm Reply

          • Sai

            Thank you!
            I had a discussion with doctor and currently hold on RNA analysis. We have in person appointment scheduled for next week to talk more on this.

            Earlier you mentioned exon 45-47 deletion shows in both Becker and Duchenne.

            Without RNA analysis what decides the disease is mild (Becker) or severe (Duchenne), is it symptoms? or based on the age symptoms occurs?

            can you please give more details like in Duchenne at which age age typically symptoms start and is developmental growth (motor skills) is always delayed with this case.

            And with Becker what will be the symptoms and usually at which age symptoms start.

            Thank you!

            7 May, 2018 at 6:56 am

          • Exonskip

            The severity of the disease is determined by the symptoms and when they occur. Duchenne is the more severe form, and symptoms occur already early in life, at around the age of 1-3 years old. Patients e.g. will have difficulty with walking, hopping/jumping, climbing stairs and will fall frequently already before the age of 4 years.

            For Becker there is a lot more variation in when the disease starts – in some patients this is in childhood, in some patients this is in adolescence or even adulthood. So here it is not possible to give a specific age – it varies – even when several patients are affected in the same family, when the symptoms start and how severe they are can differ between the patients.

            Note that I am NOT a medical doctor – what I write about the symptoms is what I know from the literature and what I have heard from clinicians treating Duchenne and Becker patients.

            7 May, 2018 at 8:27 am

  • Jaydeep Bhatt

    My son is 5 years old and gene 49, 50, 51 and 52 are delete, I would like to know more about possible treatment and institutes where I can contact for cure of his DMD illness, I really need guidance please help.

    18 April, 2018 at 7:51 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Jaydeep

      Unfortunately there is no cure yet for DMD – not anywhere in the world.

      There is good care which can help slow down the progression of the disease – you can find out more about this here: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/care/dmd/diagnosis-management-DMD/ It is important to find a hospital with experience in caring for Duchenne patients so that your son can receive the care he needs.

      Also there are therapies in development and two therapies have been approved now. However, these are mutation specific and your son is not eligible for those. He would be eligible for “exon 53 skipping”, which is tested in clinical trials. This means that as yet we do not know whether this appraoch is safe and/or effective. Also know that the therapies currently in development are unfortunately not cures – they aim to slow down the progression of the disease.
      More information on this can be found here: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/dmd/research-overview/introduction/

      I am sorry I cannot give you more positive news. Know that there are many people world wide who work hard to find a better therapy for Duchenne, but that this is challenging.

      19 April, 2018 at 8:20 am Reply

  • Julia

    Hi, I would like to ask which mutation (deletion, duplication and point) is/are not suitable for exon skipping and why?

    Thank you so much

    2 April, 2018 at 10:42 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      The dystrophin that is produced after exon skipping needs to have all its functional domains.

      The dystrophin has one dystroglycan binding domain encoded by exon 64-70. This is absolutely crucial. So if a mutation is located/includes exon 64-70, exon skipping will not result in functional dystrophins. This goes for all types of mutations (deletions, small mutations and duplications). With deletions parts are missing, while with duplications parts are double. However, the extra parts of dystrophin can affect the folding of the protein, so that while they are present, they are not functionally active.

      The dystrophin has 3 actin binding domains, two encoded by exons 2-10 and one encoded by exon 32-45. To be functional dystrophin needs at least one actin-binding domain. So mutations that remove all three are not eligible for exon skipping, since the resulting dystrophin will not be functional. Note that the first two actin binding domains are “better binders” than the third one. So a dystrophin that lacks the first two domains is less functional (associated generally with more severe Becker) than a dystrophin lacking the third actin binding domain (associated with typical Becker). For small mutations (point mutations) it is not possible to affect all three domains – only for large deletions and duplications this can be an issue. With deletions parts are missing, while with duplications parts are double. However, the extra parts of dystrophin can affect the folding of the protein, so that while they are present, they are not functionally active.

      The dystrophin has a connecting domain that is encoded by exons 11-63. This domain is largely dispensable. However, when deletions are longer than 36 exons, the domain probably becomes too short. For duplications it is not known how large they can be and still result in a functional protein. For small mutations of course the exons deleted after exon skipping will never involve more than 36 exons.

      3 April, 2018 at 11:14 am Reply

      • Julia

        Thank you so much

        5 April, 2018 at 8:49 am Reply

  • Janice Fields

    My 6 months grandson was found to be missing exon 46-47. We were told it is Duchenne. Is there any chance this could change as he gets older? What about skipping therapy?

    20 February, 2018 at 5:48 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Janice,
      I am sorry to hear about your grandson. For a deletion of exon 46-47 indeed Duchenne muscular dystrophy is expected, because this mutation disrupts the genetic code. There are sometimes exceptions (i.e. patients who have a milder progression than anticipated), but unfortunately these are few.

      The genetic code for your grandson could be corrected by the skipping of exon 45. This is currently tested in clinical trials, but is not yet available as a therapy (because the trials are needed to test if the approach works and is safe). For more information see http://www.treat-nmd.eu/dmd/research-overview/mutation-specific-approaches/exon-skipping/


      22 February, 2018 at 6:18 am Reply

  • Shady Youssry

    Dear Doctor Aartsma-Rus,
    I heard about crispr cas 9 can correct mutations between exon18 and 58,
    My question is that means both deletions and duplications or only deletions, noting that my 7 years old son has a duplication of exon 53 to 57 and I am searching for ongoing trials meeting his mutation (duplication)
    Thanks in advance

    13 December, 2017 at 12:33 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Genome editing (using CRISPR/Cas9) can in theory correct both deletions and duplications. For deletions, the aim is to restore the genetic code, while for duplications, the aim is to restore the normal code. This can be achieved by cutting out the duplicated parts. However, this work is as yet in a very early stage and only tested in patient-derived cell cultures. So there are no clinical trials ongoing specifically for duplications at the moment.

      You can read more about genome editing here: http://www.exonskipping.nl/whats-hot/blog-crispr-technology/
      You can read more about therapies in development here: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/dmd/research-overview/introduction/
      Note that all therapies that are not mutation specific would apply to all patients (so also patients with duplications).

      14 December, 2017 at 9:55 am Reply

  • Ziggy Ören

    Hello, the 5 year old son of our very good friends has just been diagnosed with DMD with duplications of Exon 6 and 7. We live in Turkey and I wondered if you could give us any information on clinical trials or treatment options available in this country?

    Also, if they were able to travel would there be any other trials you could recommend?

    Kind regards


    20 November, 2017 at 8:41 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Ziggy,
      I am sorry to hear about your friends’ son. Note that Turkey has a very good Duchenne specialist, Dr. Haluk Topaloglu and that he is involved in multiple clinical trials. I do not know by heart which ones are currently happening and whether your friends’ son would be eligible to participate, but I am sure his team will be able to inform you about that.
      Note that participation in clinical trials is a burden. Clinical trials are experiments in humans. There is no guarantee that the test drug will work and they may be unsafe. Also trials generally mean many hospital visits – so this in and of itself is a burden as well. It is best to participate in a trial that is local – this reduces the travel burden for the patient and the family (e.g. weekly hospital visits are more rule than exception) and trials may be daunting to the patient, especially when he is young and when the trial is in another country where they speak a different language. So when possible I would recommend a local trial.


      24 November, 2017 at 9:40 am Reply

  • Alexander

    Dear Doctor Aartsma-Rus,

    My son has a single base deletion in exon 56 (c.8375delA). Is exon skipping working with such small deletions. Which exon needs to be skipped to restore a truncated dystrophin for him?

    Best regards

    16 October, 2017 at 9:29 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Alexander,
      Exon skipping is in theory possible also for small mutations. Then the point is not so much to restore the reading frame (or genetic code) but to bypass the mutation. The challenges here are twofold:
      1. For the majority of exons if you skip them this will disrupt the reading frame. Exon 56 is such an exon, so skipping this exon will bypass the mutation but this will disrupt the reading frame. As such TWO exons would need to be skipped (either exon 55 and exon 56 OR exon 56 and exon 57). This way the mutation is bypased while the reading frame is not changed. Skipping two exons is a lot more challenging than skipping one exon
      2. While the larger deletions that remove one or more exons are clustering in the area of exon 45-55, small mutations (like the one of your son) occur in all exons. This means that exon skipping for small mutations applies to very small groups of patients (less than 0.1% of all patients generally).

      So exon skipping as it is currently in development for DMD will not be applicable to your son, unfortunately. However, all the mutation independent approaches in development (anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammation, pro-regeneration, mini-dystrophin, utrophin upregulation etc) do apply.

      Best regards

      19 October, 2017 at 10:58 am Reply

      • Alexander

        Dear Annemieke

        Thank you very much for this explanation.

        Best regards

        19 October, 2017 at 7:19 pm Reply

  • Adriana

    Dear Doctor Aartsma-Rus,

    I’ve sent you an email about the twin boys of a friend of mine. Is there a clinic you work in The Netherlands? By any chance can we contact you for an appointment? Please, my friend is desperate specially becouse in the city he lives in Brazil doctors know very little about it.

    Kind regards,

    22 September, 2017 at 2:06 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Adriana,
      I am not a medical doctor so I cannot see your friend’s sons. I will email you about options in Brazil.

      Best regards

      22 September, 2017 at 3:17 pm Reply

      • Adriana

        That would extremely helpfull!!! Thanks a lot!!! Looking forward to your e-mail.
        Kind regards, Adriana

        22 September, 2017 at 4:15 pm Reply

  • Abdul Salam K.

    Dear Doctor,
    The results of the Gene / DNA has showed the below :
    The MLPA results suggest there is deletion of exon 48 to 52 of the DMD gene at hemozygous state. However this test will not detect any alteration that lie outside the target probe sequence.The deletion within the DMD gene results in frame-shift and therefore premature dystrophin , which agrees with the DMD diseases. diagnosis.

    Can you please let me know if the exon 51 skipping is valid in this case

    Thank you.


    22 July, 2017 at 3:12 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Abdul,

      The MLPA will test for each part of the genetic code of the dystrophin genes (the so called exons) whether they are present or not. In case of your son, exons 48, 49, 50, 51 and 52 are missing. This disrupts the genetic code, so starting at exon 53 this becomes unreadable for the machinery that translates gene to protein. He therefore cannot produce functional dystrophin.
      Exon skipping aims to restore the genetic code by making the deletion one exon larger. In case of your son’s mutation, exon 53 skipping would restore the genetic code. Exon 51 skipping will not work because your son does not have exon 51, so it cannot be skipped.

      24 July, 2017 at 7:49 am Reply

  • Exonskip

    Dear Shady,
    I am not a clinician but a researcher so I cannot provide you advise on the care of your son. I can point you to the standards of care for DMD which have been published also in a family friendly version: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/care/dmd/family-guide/

    There are no clinical trials ongoing specifically targeting your son’s mutation. However, there are multiple trials ongoing for which mutation type is not an issue. See for an overview: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/dmd/research-overview/introduction/. The mutation specific approaches currently under evaluation (exon skipping and nonsense codon readthrough) will not apply to your son’s mutation. However, approaches aiming to reduce fibrosis, improve regeneration, decrease inflammation will apply to all DMD patients.

    Best regards

    20 July, 2017 at 9:23 am Reply

    • Shady

      Dear Annemieke
      Thanks for your valuable information ,
      Could you please tell me what is the difference between non sense (stop codon) mutation and large duplication that alter the reading frame like my son’s case,as i know that both disrupt the reading frame but do both have the same severity phenotype? And different propability of the total absence of the dystrophin protein?

      20 July, 2017 at 12:49 pm Reply

      • Exonskip

        Dear Shady,

        A nonsense mutation does not disrupt the reading frame. It changes the genetic code at one position so that the code reads “stop” rather than genetic information. These stop codes are normally only present at the end of the genetic code, so the translation machinery knows the protein is complete. When a mutation changes the genetic code into a stop earlier in the gene, the translation stops too early and the protein is not functional. So the consequence is the same as with frame-shifting mutations (translation stops too early and protein is not functional). As such, these nonsense mutations cause DMD, like the frame shifting mutations.

        24 July, 2017 at 7:45 am Reply

  • Shady

    Hello Dr.
    Mlpa was done for my 7 years old son, showed a duplication from Exon 53-57 that disrupt the reading frame ,
    The question is the said mutation disrupted the whole function of the gene or only the site beyond or below the mutation site(exons)in other words the gene is functioning till Exon 52 only that can translate the proteins before the duplicated exons or not functioning at all?
    Another question if the site (region) of mutation in specific area of the gene differs in severity than other parts of the gene even if disrupt the reading frame for example if I have 2 patients,1 with duplication of Exon 18-22 (out of frame) and the other patient has duplication of Exon 53-57 ( out of frame also) do both of them have the same severity or not?
    Thanks in advance

    14 July, 2017 at 1:00 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Shady,
      I am sorry to hear your son has Duchenne. I will try to explain some of the genetics to you – hopefully this will answer your questions.
      Duchenne is caused by a failure of patients to produce a functional dystrophin protein. The dystrophin protein fulfills a linker function in the muscle. One side of it connects to the skeleton/internal structure of the muscle fiber, the other size connects to the connective tissue surrounding the muscle fiber. In between there is a spring like system consisting of 24 similar domains. The connection stabilizes muscle fibers upon contraction.
      Duchenne patients have a mutation that disrupts the genetic code of the dystrophin gene (out-of-frame mutations). Consequently, the code becomes unreadable after the mutation. Because the important domains of dystrophin are located at the start and the end of the protein, the resulting dystrophin will not be functional. It will lack the domain that connects to the connective tissue. As such it does not matter whether the mutation is at the start or in the middle are even close to the end – the crucial domain at the end will be missing and therefore the dystrophin is not functional.
      In fact, the part in the middle of dystrophin is redundant. We know this because in-frame mutations affecting the middle of the protein keep the genetic code readable. As such dystrophins can be produced that have the important domains at the start and the end, but are shorter in the middle. These proteins are found in the less severe Becker muscular dystrophy.
      In summary, for out of frame mutations it does not matter where the mutation is located – if the domain at the end of the protein (encoded by exons 64-70) cannot be produced, the protein will not be functional. As such they will both cause Duchenne.
      Please do not hesitate to ask for clarification if this is not clear to you or ask follow up questions.

      19 July, 2017 at 8:42 am Reply

      • Shady

        Thanks for your kind reply,I just need to ask some questions
        First:is there any trials currently recruting regarding the mentioned mutation for my son(duplication 53-57)?
        Second:what is the best treatment should I start with my son ,noting that my son is 7 years old,he is active and still ambulant in good condition except for climbing stairs with support by himself and Gower’s sign
        Third: which is better “Prednisone or deflazacort” noting that our neourlogist has recommended Prednisone 15 mg/d in addition to multivitamins,but we didn’t start steroids yet?
        Fourth:she recommended swimming 1hr a week but didn’t recommended physiotherapy right now?
        Last question:shall we start using night splint and hand braces for him now or later?,also shall we delay steroids or start now?
        Thanks for your time

        19 July, 2017 at 4:59 pm Reply

  • Magdi

    My grandson is 7 years old and was diagnosed as having DMD ( most probably )due to duplication of exons 53 to 57 .He is ambulatory and does physiotherapy is specialized center . we give him Tamoxifen 10 mg daily for 1.5 months now . He is doing better since then . What is your comment on the duplication regarding prognosis and treatment . Also ,if you have any comments on Tamoxifen ( I know that it is in clinical trial but I took the risk because I cannot wait till I see him helpless and not moving so early ) .

    4 July, 2017 at 11:04 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      I am sorry to hear about your grandson. Good care is really the best thing that can be doen for him – this means physiotherapy but also has other aspects (see http://www.treat-nmd.eu/care/dmd/family-guide/). I cannot comment on tamoxifen other than that it is a therapy that has yet to be tested in Duchenne patients. It has yet to be shown that this drug is effective and that it is safe in Duchenne patients. The fact that it works in mice is no guarantee that it will work in patients. The fact that it appears to be safe in mice is no guarantee that it will be safe in Duchenne patients.

      Regarding the duplication: it is expected to disrupt the genetic code of the dystrophin gene and as such is a “Duchenne type” of mutation. The milder disease course of Becker is expected for mutations that do NOT disrupt the genetic code. However, how your grandson will progress exactly is difficult to predict since every patient is unique. This will depend on how well his muscle regenerates, how well his immune system works, how muscular he is to begin with etc.

      Coming back to the start: the best thing to do is to make sure he has good care – this is the best way to slow down the breakdown of muscle as much as possible.

      5 July, 2017 at 7:48 am Reply

  • Valerie Heylen


    Bedankt voor de snelle reactie.

    Vriendelijke groeten,

    3 July, 2017 at 5:12 pm Reply

  • Valerie Heylen


    Mijn zoontje is 19 maanden en heeft Duchenne, hij heeft deletie 51. Kan hij met deze deletie in aanmerking komen voor exon skipping of is dit niet voor deletie 51 van toepassing?

    Vriendelijke groeten,

    3 July, 2017 at 2:23 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Beste Valerie,
      Exon skipping is een mutatie specifieke aanpak waarbij gepoogd wordt om Duchenne patienten een deels functioneel dystrofine eiwit te laten maken in plaats van een niet functioneel eiwit. Hiervoor moet tijdens het verwerkingsproces van gen naar eiwit dus een exon geskipt worden. WELK exon hangt af van de locatie van de mutatie. Een exon 51 deletie komt in theorie in aanmerking voor deze aanpak. Om de leesbaarheid van het gen te herstellen moet exon 52 OF exon 50 worden geskipt. Momenteel wordt er geen klinisch onderzoek gedaan met middelen om deze exonen te skippen. De focus ligt vooral op het skippen van exon 51, 45 en 53 momenteel omdat dit toepasbaar is op de grootste groep patienten.

      3 July, 2017 at 4:26 pm Reply

  • Manohar

    Hello Dr.

    My Son is 7-years, Muscle Biopsy says consistent with DMD but MLPA ( Genetic Test ) reveals point mutation at 46 chromosome.
    He is on protein diet and also physiotherapy, swimming etc. going regularly

    Please guide me regarding any treatment pertaining to point mutations ( exon skipping, ataluren ( translarna)

    awaiting for your reply



    20 June, 2017 at 2:50 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Manohar,

      I am sorry to hear your son has DMD. The mutation you describe however, does not make sense to me. Do you mean a deletion or duplication of exon 46? A small mutation in exon 46? Feel free to email me privately if you prefer (you can find my email address on publications). I will need this information to provide information about mutation specific appraoches.

      Very good to hear your son is doing physiotherapy – good care is the most important thing you can do for him!

      26 June, 2017 at 10:03 am Reply

  • Shenoy john Rajan


    My son is 4 years old and has exon deletion from 48 – 52 . How feasible is an exon 53 skipping and i have read that trial results are due only in 2019 . What other treatments can be done in the mean time ?

    26 April, 2017 at 10:56 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Exon 53 skipping is indeed tested in clinical trials at the moment. As yet we do not know whether it is effective or safe (of course we all hope it is both effective and safe, but the trial is done to evaluate this).

      What can be done already is provide good care to your son to keep him in as good a condition as possible for when hopefully a therapy is available. More information on care guidelines for Duchenne can be found here: http://www.dmd-guide.org/. This is based on two scientific papers published on this topic, but ‘translated’ into more accessible language non medically trained individuals.

      1 May, 2017 at 4:01 pm Reply

      • Abdul Salam K.

        Dear Doctor ,
        Referring to deletion exon 48 -52 my son was diagnosed based on DNA Results .

        Can you explain please the difference as part of symptoms and progression of the disorder would it slow or fast.
        is milder or sever !

        Thank you

        21 July, 2017 at 3:16 pm Reply

        • Exonskip

          Dear Abdul,

          A deletion of exon 48-52 unfortunately disrupts the genetic code of the dystrophin gene. That means your son cannot produce functional dystrophin and he would be expected to have Duchenne muscular dystrophy – the more progressive form of the disease.

          24 July, 2017 at 7:46 am Reply

    • Sonia Kher

      I have come across a child who is 7 yrs old and has exon 48-52 deletion. Can you let me know when the trial is going to come up. The patient is in India..I am wondering how can he be a part of the trial

      8 June, 2017 at 7:22 pm Reply

      • Exonskip

        You can see an overview of therapies in clinical development at many places, e.g. the TREAT-NMD website: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/dmd/research-overview/introduction/
        Here you will see that there are approaches in development that apply to all Duchenne patients regardless of their mutation. In addition there are mutation specific therapies in development. The latter have been developed furthest and two compounds have been approved: Translarna (in Europe) and Eteplirsen (in the USA). Translarna only applies to nonsense mutations – so the child you mention would not be eligible since he has a frame-shift. Eteplirsen is an exon 51 skipping compound, aiming to restore the reading frame. However, this would also not work for the child you mention since exon 51 is deleted already. Exon 53 skipping would restore the reading frame for this patient. Exon 53 skipping compounds developed by Sarepta therapeutics are in clinical development in the USA and Europe. To my knowledge no trial is currently going on in India, but I know DART (Duchenne Annihilation Research Trust, located in Bangalore) is preparing clinical trials in India.

        15 June, 2017 at 8:07 am Reply

  • Annemieke

    Most treatments in development are mutation agnostic. You can find an overview of therapies in or close to clinical development for DMD here: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/dmd/research-overview/introduction/

    27 February, 2017 at 11:12 am Reply

  • Mangesh

    Thank you for your reply what are the future treatment which will be available for gene duplication please let me know if any so that I can follow theme

    26 February, 2017 at 7:24 pm Reply

  • Mangesh

    My nephew is suffering from Dmd duplication of Gene 57 to 60 what does duplication means is the prognosis same as deletion.

    16 February, 2017 at 7:21 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Mangesh,
      I am sorry to hear about your nephew. The dystrophin gene has 79 exons. A deletion means that part of the gene is missing (e.g. exon 57-60). A duplication means that part of the gene is ‘doubled’, in case of your nephew he has exon 1-60, but then instead of exon 61, he has an extra copy of exon 57, 58, 59, and 60, and only then exon 61-79. The consequence of deletions and duplications can be two-fold: 1. They can disrupt the genetic code. This means that dystrophin protein cannot be produced and patients have Duchenne. 2. They can maintain the genetic code, allowing the production of a dystrophin that is slightly shorter but has its functional domains. These proteins are partially functional and are found in Becker patients (less severe disease).
      A duplication of exon 57-60 is unfortunately of the type that disrupts the genetic code. So you would expect him to have the severe type of the disease. There are exceptions to this rule however, so it is not possible to say this with 100% certainty.

      20 February, 2017 at 3:53 pm Reply

  • Amir Scetic

    I have son with DMD and we recive genetic test which shows c.3151C>T in exon 23coresponding to the mutation p.Arg.1051.
    What these mean? Can he take some terapy?

    23 January, 2017 at 12:04 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Amir,
      I am sorry to hear about your son.
      The mutation you describe is a so called nonsense mutation (also called stop mutation). Genes contain the genetic code for proteins. Each gene has a start and a stop signal so the translation machine knows where to start translating the gene into protein and when the protein is finished. For most Duchenne patients part of the genetic code is lost (deleted) and therefore the code becomes unreadable, so it is not translated. However, for some patients, like your son, there is a very small change that changes the code for a part of the protein into a stop signal. This means that translations is stopped prematurely and no functional protein is produced.
      There is a therapy that addresses this type of mutations. It is called stop codon readthrough and the drug that achieves this is called Ataluren (tradename Translarna). Ataluren is approved for treatment of ambulant Duchenne patients 5 years and older in Europe by the European Medicines Agency. It is on the market in several countries in Europe. In addition there are access programmes for patients outside Europe. It is a treatment, not a cure. It does not stop the disease, but slows down its progression.
      For more information I refer you to: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/dmd/research-overview/mutation-specific-approaches/exon-skipping/ and to the website of the company producing Ataluren (PTC): http://www.ptcbio.com/en/

      23 January, 2017 at 2:22 pm Reply

      • Amir Sceric

        Thank You very much for Your qucik replay. Can You tell me which clinic in Europa I can contact and go with my son. Ina our country, Bosnia, we do not have good doctors. Nobody tell as about this tretman. They do not know abou it. If You have some contacts please send me. Thank You very much.

        23 January, 2017 at 8:06 pm Reply

  • Mohammad Yunoos


    I ‘ m father of a child With dmd due to a deletion Of exons 45 to 53 .My son is 7 Years old What you Can’ do today for this
    Type of mutation?
    Thank you

    1 November, 2016 at 4:00 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Mohammad,
      Sorry to hear about your son. At the moment there is no therapy available for Duchenne. There are care guidelines available, see here for a family friendly version: http://www.treat-nmd.eu/care/dmd/family-guide/
      Good care is very important to keep Duchenne patients as functional as possible for as long as possible.

      The exon skipping approach probably will not apply to your son. The approach aims to restore the genetic code. However, a deletion of exon 45-53 does not disrupt the genetic code (so therefore it cannot be restored). For this mutation we would expect a milder progression (Becker) – However, there are exceptions, e.g. it is possible that while on DNA level the genetic code seems not to be disrupted, it IS disrupted in the temporary RNA copy because parts of the gene that are important for gene processing are missing. Since the protein is translated from this RNA copy (and not directly from DNA), the way the RNA copy looks like, is what determines whether protein can be produced. However, RNA and protein analysis can only be done on muscle tissue. How was the mutation found? Only by DNA analysis? Or was protein analyzed as well?

      14 November, 2016 at 1:27 pm Reply

  • ruud quaars

    goede dag

    is het nu niet mogelijk dat het medicijn wat nu er is niet te gebruiken voor de patenten die in de proef bij jullie waren
    want op de congres zag ik de bij nr 53 goede voorgang zat // groen was kleine doorlatingen van eiwitten // zie foto
    ik zag dat ook nu bij mijn klein zoon / nu zie je dat deze toch wat achteruit gaat
    daarom vind ik dat als je ziet dat er een kleine tijd verlenging tot stand komt het toch werkt

    18 July, 2016 at 2:15 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Beste Ruud,

      Het is niet mogelijk om dit middel te gebruiken – het is namelijk niet een medicijn want nog niet goedgekeurd. De ontwikkeling van de “Biomarin/Prosensa” exon skip middelen is gestopt omdat de bijwerkingen niet opwogen tegen de zeer beperkte effecten in een klein groepje patienten.
      In Amerika is afgelopen week een ander exon skip middel goedgekeurd (Eteplirsen, van het bedrijf Sarepta). In Europa wil Sarepta ook exon 53 middelen testen.


      24 September, 2016 at 10:49 am Reply

  • Jennifer Batterbee

    Hi, we’re desperately trying to find out how to get exon skipping for TJ. He’s a three year old boy who has just been diagnosed. We’ve just started raising funds to help us in our endeavour. However we have no idea where to start in terms of having access to the treatment or how much money we need or even when he might be eligible for the treatment. Please, please help us? Any information on who to contact or how to start on this journey would mean the world to us! Thank you so much for taking the time to read this. I hope to hear from you soon. Warm regards Mrs Jennifer Batterbee.

    13 August, 2015 at 10:55 am Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Jennifer,
      What is TJ’s mutation? Not all mutations are suitable for exon skipping.


      24 September, 2016 at 10:50 am Reply

  • Getjan Lammers

    Message for Dr Aartsema.
    Dear Annemieke , today i heard the last part of an interview with you on Radio1 about the influence of mobile phones on the well-being of youngsters. What survey or news item did this refer to? Would you also think that such devices have an impact on persons at their workplace? As i am interested in how advanced automation and robotisation will impact the life of people on the workplace.
    My interest is therefore both professional and private.
    Thank you in advance for your response.

    6 May, 2015 at 6:32 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      The problem with mobile phones and tablets is that they produce a lot of light – especially in the blue spectrum. This is not harmful in itself. The problem is that blue light interferes with the production of melatonin. Melatonin is a substance your body makes that helps you sleep. It needs to accumulate for about 3 hours before there is enough to get you to sleep easily. So if you use tablets or mobiles in the evening, melatonin can not accumulate due to the blue light exposure. This can lead to difficulties falling asleep.
      So it is not the mobile phones that are harmful, but the lack of sleep if you use them until very late.

      24 September, 2016 at 10:53 am Reply

  • kumar prashant

    what can i do if i want exon skipping….
    i am suffering from dmd….
    plz help me…..
    contact no:+917209851790

    17 February, 2015 at 8:05 pm Reply

    • Exonskip

      Dear Kumar

      Exon skipping is an approach that aims to slow down disease progression. Muscle function that is lost will not return.
      It is also a mutation specific appraoch. Not all mutations are suitable unfortunately.

      24 September, 2016 at 10:54 am Reply

  • Angelo

    I ‘ m father of a child With dmd due to a duplication Of exons 8 9 .My son is 5 Years old What you Can’ do today for this
    Type of mutation?
    Tank you

    27 January, 2015 at 6:47 am Reply